2 Weekly Quizzes

Part 1: Introduction to Psychology

Psychology refers to the ________.

  1. empirical study of humanity
  2. experimental study of individuals
  3. scientific study of the mind
  4. systematic study of human interaction

What is a PsyD?

  1. Doctor of Philosophy
  2. Doctor of Psychiatry
  3. Doctor of Psychoanalysis
  4. Doctor of Psychology

William James was the ________.

  1. author of the first psychology textbook
  2. father of psychology
  3. first American psychologist
  4. first psychoanalyst

Psychoanalytic theory focuses on ________ and early childhood experiences.

  1. a person’s consciousness
  2. a person’s unconscious
  3. fetal development
  4. sexual identity

Behaviorists study ________.

  1. a person’s unconscious mind
  2. chemical and hormonal changes
  3. dreams
  4. learned behavior

________ is a perspective within psychology that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans.

  1. behaviorism
  2. gestalt
  3. humanism
  4. structuralism

A series of dots arranged in the shape of a face will be perceived as a face, not a series of dots. A psychologist studying this phenomenon is applying the principals of ________.

  1. Gestalt psychology
  2. humanism
  3. psychoanalytic theory
  4. structuralism

Penelope studies how the structure and function of the nervous system is related to behavior. She is a ________.

  1. biopsychologist
  2. developmental psychologist
  3. humanist
  4. social psychologist

The cognitive revolution created an impetus for psychologists to focus their attention on better understanding ________.

  1. emotions and cultural norms that underlie emotional responses
  2. genetics and the evolutionary adaptations that underlie behavior
  3. stimulus-response and the instincts that underlie human reaction to pain
  4. the mind and mental processes that underlie behavior

Behaviorism focuses on making psychology an objective science by ________.

  1. studying how emotional responses influence behavior while deemphasizing the importance of the subconscious
  2. studying implicit motivations for behavior through the use of implicit association tests
  3. studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental processes
  4. studying the genetic basis for behavior and theorizing how instincts influence behavior

Ashya wants to focus on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior. What area of psychology should she work in?

  1. clinical psychology
  2. cognitive psychology
  3. organizational psychology
  4. social psychology


Part 2: Psychological Research

Spurling et al. investigated the effects of two vocabulary learning strategies on word retention two weeks later. In this example, learning strategy is the ________ variable and word retention is the ________ variable.

  1. control; experimental
  2. dependent; independent
  3. experimental; control
  4. independent; dependent

A(n) ________ is a well-developed set of ideas that proposes an explanation for observed phenomena.

  1. conclusion
  2. hypothesis
  3. operational definition
  4. theory

Which correlation coefficient best represents a moderate relationship showing fewer anxiety symptoms in people who report higher life satisfaction?

  1. –0.5
  2. –0.2
  3. +0.4
  4. +0.7

In a ________ study, both the researchers and the participants are unaware of the group assignments.

  1. control
  2. double-blind
  3. pilot
  4. randomly assigned

What is a limitation that affects the generalizability of research results?

  1. control groups
  2. operational definitions
  3. random assignment
  4. small sample size

Dr. Mattar is interested in knowing more about brain injury to the occipital cortex, and he studies patients individually in order to gain in-depth knowledge about their behaviors. These studies would best be described as ________.

  1. case studies
  2. correlational
  3. cross-sectional
  4. surveys

Patwardhan et al. report data from a study where they hired experimental confederates to attend speed dating events, posing as daters, and carefully take notes on the behaviors of the daters. What type of research design did they use?

  1. case study
  2. experiment
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. survey

Which of the following research designs will allow cause-and-effect conclusions?

  1. correlational
  2. experimental
  3. quasi-experimental
  4. survey

Research shows that people who smoke cigarettes are more likely to get lung cancer than those who do not smoke. This research alone demonstrates that ________.

  1. smoking causes lung cancer
  2. smoking contributes to lung cancer
  3. there is a predisposition toward both smoking and lung cancer
  4. there is a relationship between smoking and lung cancer

Simply expecting something to happen can make it happen. This describes ________.

  1. experimenter bias
  2. observer bias
  3. participant bias
  4. placebo effect

The ________ is controlled by the experimenter.

  1. confounding variable
  2. dependent variable
  3. independent variable
  4. variability

A sample that ________ is most likely to yield generalizable results.

  1. has at least 20 participants
  2. has at least 200 participants
  3. is large and randomly selected
  4. is small and specifically selected

The only way to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables is to conduct a(n) ________.

  1. detailed literature search
  2. experiment
  3. study
  4. survey

Part 3: Biopsychology

The ________ of a neuron contain ________ that house neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers of the nervous system.

  1. axons; terminal buttons
  2. dendrites; synaptic vesicles
  3. terminal buttons; synaptic vesicles
  4. terminal buttons; transport proteins

The space between two neurons is called the ________.

  1. soma
  2. synapse
  3. terminal button
  4. vesicle

________ is the electrical signal that typically moves from the cell body down the axon to the axon terminals.

  1. action potential
  2. depolarization
  3. hyperpolarization
  4. threshold of excitation

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs commonly prescribed for ________.

  1. depression
  2. obsessive-compulsive disorder
  3. Parkinson’s disease
  4. schizophrenia

The ________ nervous system is responsible for responses such as pupil dilation, increased heart rate, and increased respiration.

  1. autonomic
  2. parasympathetic
  3. somatic
  4. sympathetic

Sensory and motor neurons of the ________ nervous system are associated with activities traditionally thought of as conscious or voluntary.

  1. autonomic
  2. parasympathetic
  3. somatic
  4. sympathetic

The central nervous system consists of the brain and the ________.

  1. brainstem
  2. internal organs
  3. peripheral nerves
  4. spinal cord

Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the case study of Phineas Gage’s accident, which led to brain injury?

  1. Frontal lobe injury causes people to be incapable of controlling their emotional impulses.
  2. Injury to the brain causes changes in behavior, but specific brain areas are not linked to specific behaviors.
  3. Injury to the frontal lobe does not affect behavior.
  4. Injury to the brain causes changes in behavior, and specific brain areas are linked to particular behaviors.

The auditory cortex is located in which lobe of the brain?

  1. frontal
  2. occipital
  3. parietal
  4.  temporal

The ________ is involved in our experience of emotion and tying emotional meaning to our memories.

  1.  amygdala
  2. corpus callosum
  3. hypothalamus
  4. pons


Part 4: States of Consciousness

Which theorist described dreams as having manifest and latent content?

  1. Carl Jung
  2. John Hobson
  3. Rosalind Cartwright
  4. Sigmund Freud

In a ________ dream, people become aware that they are dreaming and can control the dream’s content.

  1. K-complex
  2. lucid
  3. REM
  4. theta wave

When Brady is hot he sweats. When Brady is cold, he gets goose bumps on his skin so he will warm up more quickly. This is an example of how the body tries to achieve ________.

  1. circadian rhythms
  2. heterostasis
  3. homeostasis
  4. internal-external stimulus

Most people are awake during the day and asleep at night because their ________ cycles are aligned with the outside world.

  1. circadian
  2. external
  3. melatonin
  4. rhythm

Mohammed is sleeping. His eyelids are quivering because his eyes are darting around. Mohammed is probably experiencing ________ sleep.

  1. night terrors
  2. non-REM
  3. NREM
  4. REM

Nancy is aware that she is dreaming when she has a nightmare, so she concentrates and changes her dream from bad to good. This is a good example of ________ dreaming.

  1. external
  2. internal
  3. lucid
  4. stage 1

Physical dependence on a drug is indicated by the user experiencing ________ as a result of discontinuing use of the drug.

  1. a return to normal performance levels
  2. changes in normal bodily function
  3. psychological distress
  4. psychological stress

Tayla smokes marijuana. At first, just a few inhalations were enough to cloud her mind. Over time, she needs to smoke more and more to achieve the same affect. This is an example of ________.

  1. physical dependence
  2. psychological dependence
  3. tolerance
  4. withdrawal

Alcohol is considered a ________ because it tends to suppress central nervous system activity.

  1. antipsychotic
  2. depressant
  3. hallucinogen
  4. stimulant

Individuals undergoing hypnosis ________.

  1. can be coerced into harming themselves and others by a skilled hypnotist
  2. report no memory of the events that occurred during the period they were hypnotized
  3. usually do not have clear memories of the hypnotic experience and are not in control of their own behaviors
  4. usually have clear memories of the hypnotic experience and are in control of their own behaviors

Cocaine is considered a ________ drug because it tends to increase overall levels of neural activity.

  1. antipsychotic
  2. depressant
  3. hallucinogen
  4. stimulan


Part 5: Sensation and Perception

What is described by the concept of perception?

  1. how interpretation of sensations is influenced by available knowledge, experiences, and thoughts
  2. how sensory information is interpreted and consciously experienced
  3. the change in stimulus detection as a function of current mental state
  4. what happens when sensory information is detected by a sensory receptor

Inattentional ________ refers to the failure to notice something that is completely visible due to a lack of attention.

  1. blindness
  2. responsiveness
  3. sublimation
  4. transduction

Which type of processing involves the interpretation of sensations and is influenced by available knowledge, experiences, and thoughts?

  1. absolute threshold
  2. signal detection
  3. subliminal
  4. top-down

Our vestibular sense contributes to our ability to ________.

  1. distinguish the fat content of food
  2. feel pain
  3. maintain balance and body posture
  4. regulate body temperature

What kind of processing is exemplified by the following scenario? Esther’s mother offers her a new dish she’s been working on―a raisin-jalapeno quiche. Esther’s body responds first: Esther eyes the content of the skillet, and smells the mix of raisins, jalapenos, and eggs. Her stomach churns and she looks away. Feeling disgust and disappointment, she says “I’m not hungry.”

  1. bottom-up
  2. sensory adaptation
  3. top-down
  4. vertical-horizontal

________ refers to the way that sensory information is interpreted and consciously experienced; ________ refers to what happens when sensory information is detected by a sensory receptor.

  1. perception; reception
  2. perception; sensation
  3. preception; postception
  4. sensation; perception

Sarit is at a bar full of music, chatter, and laughter. He gets involved in an interesting conversation with a woman named Mona, and he tunes out all the background noise. Sarit’s friend, Karen, taps him on the shoulder and asks what song just played on the jukebox. Sarit says he doesn’t know, even though he is sitting right next to the jukebox and is familiar with popular music. This illustrates the role that ________ plays in what is sensed versus what is perceived.

  1. attention
  2. friendship
  3. habit
  4. mood

Sariah enters a room with several chirping crickets in it. Upon first entering the room, Sariah can hear the chirping; however, as she begins to talk to her friends, she is no longer aware of the chirping even though it is still there. The fact that Sariah no longer perceives the chirping sound demonstrates sensory ________.

  1. adaptation
  2. formation
  3. regression
  4. revision

What concept is illustrated by the following study? Participants were instructed to focus on either white or black objects, disregarding the other color. When a red cross passed across the screen, about one third of the subjects did not notice it.

  1. bottom-up processing
  2. inattentional blindness
  3. sensory adaptation
  4. top-down processing

Petra walks into a brightly lit Psychology lab to participate in an experiment involving the ability to perceive the colors of the rainbow. Which photoreceptors will be most useful during this experiment?

  1. cones
  2. fovea
  3. lens
  4. rods

Wesley is in a movie theater with no windows—the only light is low illumination from the emergency lights on the floor. Which photoreceptors will be most useful to Wesley as he attempts to leave the theater?

  1. cones
  2. fovea
  3. iris
  4. rods

Kimya stares at a bright light and then looks away. After she looks away, she perceives a spot. What is this spot?

  1. afterimage
  2. blind spot
  3. preimage
  4. night blindness


Part 6: Learning

Dave’s boss told him that he doesn’t have to attend the company picnic (which everybody dislikes) if Dave meets his sales quota this month. Dave’s boss is using ________.

  1. negative punishment
  2. negative reinforcement
  3. positive punishment
  4. positive reinforcement

In classical conditioning, the association that is learned is between a ________.

  1. conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned response
  2. neutral response and a conditioned response
  3. neutral stimulus and a neutral response
  4. neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus

Which of the following is a process by which we learn to associate stimuli and, consequently, to anticipate events?

  1. classical conditioning
  2. controlled conditioning
  3. physiological conditioning
  4. psychic conditioning

Which of the following is the decrease in the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented with the conditioned stimulus?

  1. acquisition
  2. extinction
  3. recovery
  4. reflex

In operant conditioning, what describes adding something to decrease the likelihood of behavior?

  1. acquisition
  2. extinction
  3. punishment
  4. recovery

Which term best describes rewarding successive approximations of a target behavior?

  1. acquisition
  2. learning
  3. reinforcement
  4. shaping

Learning that occurs but is not observable in behavior until there is a reason to demonstrate it is called ________ learning.

  1. conditioned
  2. latent
  3. partial
  4. primary

Dymesha watches her older sister do headstands. Dymesha falls over when she attempts to do a headstand herself. She watches her older sister more carefully, and she notices that her sister leans backward slightly to complete her headstand. Dymesha is then able to do headstands herself. Which type of learning is this?

  1. classical
  2. conditioning
  3. observational
  4. operant

In operant conditioning, ________ is when something is removed to increase the likelihood of a behavior.

  1. negative reinforcement
  2. positive reinforcement
  3. punishment
  4. punishment reinforcement

Grace whistles while tickling Khaleel with a feather. Eventually, Khaleel starts to squirm and giggle every time Grace whistles, even when he is not being tickled. In this example, squirming and giggling is a(n) ________.

  1. conditioned response
  2. conditioned stimulus
  3. unconditioned response
  4. unconditioned stimulus

Mia is taught to go to sleep when the light is turned off. However, for many months Mia no longer falls asleep when the light is turned off. Later, Mia begins to fall asleep when the light is turned off again. This is an example of ________.

  1. classical conditioning
  2. higher order conditioning
  3. neutral stimulus
  4. spontaneous recovery

Kerry is conditioned to fear strawberries. Raspberries are similar to strawberries, and even though no attempt was made to make Kerry fear raspberries, she reacts with fear when she sees them. This is an example of ________.

  1. imitation
  2. modeling
  3. stimulus discrimination
  4. stimulus generalization

Molly attempts to condition her puppy to greet her when she enters the house. She repeatedly pairs her entry to the house with a treat for the puppy. The puppy eventually acquires this ability, and Molly realizes how irritating it is for the puppy to run up to her every time she enters the house. She attempts to make the puppy stop, and eventually the puppy no longer feels motivated to greet her when she enters the house. The puppy no longer greeting her when she enters the house is an example of ________.

  1. acquisition
  2. conditioning
  3. extinction
  4. learning

Frances receives one dollar for every pound of worms she gives her grandfather. Which reinforcement schedule is this?

  1. fixed interval
  2. fixed ratio
  3. variable interval
  4. variable ratio

Gambling at a slot machine is an example of which reinforcement schedule?

  1. fixed interval
  2. fixed ratio
  3. variable interval
  4. variable ratio

Gabrielle watches her father put batteries into her toy phone, and she is then able to put the batteries into the toy phone herself without further instruction from her father. In this example, Gabrielle’s father is a ________.

  1. cognition
  2. model
  3. response
  4. stimulus

Hideki tells a lie and is grounded. He does this several times, finally learning that his behavior (lying) is associated with a consequence (being grounded). Which kind of learning is this?

  1. classical conditioning
  2. imitation
  3. modeling
  4. operant conditioning

Which experiment involves the use of classical conditioning?

  1. blindfolding someone and timing him to see how long he takes to find a button hidden in a room
  2. determining how long it takes a person to learn how to knit if he is only allowed to watch YouTube videos of people knitting
  3. knowing that a student fears exams, the instructor wears a bright red shirt only on exam day, every exam day, to see how long it is before the red shirt becomes an object of fear to the student
  4. rewarding a boy for finishing his vegetables with ice cream and counting how many nights of reinforcement are required before he voluntarily eats his vegetables


Part 7: Thinking and Intelligence

From a psychological perspective, the term cognition means ________.

  1. determining
  2. processing
  3. thinking
  4. understanding

________ are categories or groupings of linguistic information, images, ideas, or memories, such as life experiences.

  1. beliefs
  2. concepts
  3. emotions
  4. values

A(an) ________ is the best example, or representation, of a concept.

  1. amalgamation
  2. archetype
  3. prototype
  4. unification

A(an) ________ involves approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past, but it is clearly no longer working.

  1. anchoring bias
  2. functional fixedness
  3. mental set
  4. trial and error

Which concept is a type of mental set where you cannot perceive an object being used for something other than what it was designed for?

  1. anchoring bias
  2. functional fixedness
  3. hindsight bias
  4. representative bias

What is confirmation bias?

  1. believing the event you just experienced was predictable
  2. focusing on information that confirms your existing beliefs
  3. focusing only on one piece of information when making a decision
  4. stereotyping someone or something unintentionally

________intelligence is marked by inventing or imagining a solution to a problem or situation.

  1. analytic
  2. creative
  3. crystallized
  4. practical

The analytical intelligence component of the triarchic theory of intelligence is demonstrated by the ability to ________.

  1. analyze, evaluate, judge, compare, and contrast
  2. produce new products or ideas and invent novel solutions to a problem
  3. provide correct or established answers to a problem
  4. think outside the box to arrive at novel solutions to a problem

Gonzalo is attempting to open his car door using the auto lock button on his keychain. He pushes the button twice, but his car door does not open. He continues to push the button even though it is likely that the auto lock feature has stopped working, and he will need to open the door manually with his key. This illustrates a ________.

  1. confirmation bias
  2. functional fixedness
  3. hindsight bias
  4. mental set

An anchoring bias occurs when you focus on ________.

  1. direct experience versus indirect experience
  2. empirical knowledge versus personal opinion
  3. one piece of information versus all of the information
  4. personal opinion versus empirical knowledge

Carmela believes her assistant, Lian, is incompetent. She notices only what Lian does wrong while ignoring the above average quality of most of her work. This exemplifies ________ bias.

  1. anchoring
  2. confirmation
  3. hindsight
  4. representational

Ilayda assumes that her professors spend their free time reading books and engaging in intellectual conversation, because the idea of them spending their time playing volleyball or visiting an amusement park does not fit in with her stereotypes of professors. This exemplifies ________.

  1. availability heuristic
  2. confirmation bias
  3. representational bias
  4. stereotype bias

Illnesses such as diabetes and stomach cancer kill more than twice the number of Americans than murder or car accidents. However, Zale sees car accidents as more dangerous because he often hears about car accident fatalities on the nightly news, and he doesn’t know anyone with diabetes or stomach cancer. Therefore, Zale takes more precautions against car accidents. This exemplifies ________.

  1. algorithm
  2. availability heuristic
  3. functional fixedness
  4. hindsight bias

Kai cuts her foot while hiking. She forgot to pack bandages, but she has a tube of superglue and uses that to seal the wound. Kai’s ability to invent a solution uses the ________ intelligence component of the triarchic theory of intelligence.

  1. analytic
  2. creative
  3. fluid
  4. practical

Nima excels at working with numbers in subjects such as calculus and algebra. This exemplifies ________ intelligence.

  1. bodily kinesthetic
  2. interpersonal
  3. logical–mathematical
  4. spatial

Jake is sympathetic and considerate of his friends’ moods. He really identifies with their feelings and readily understands their point of view. He is well-known around campus, and he has great relationships with his classmates and professors. Which area of intelligence does this exemplify?

  1. interpersonal
  2. intrapersonal
  3. linguistic
  4. naturalist

Mikel can look at an engineering plan and quickly build a scale model. This exemplifies ________ intelligence.

  1. bodily kinesthetic
  2. logical–mathematical
  3. naturalist
  4. spatial

In Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, ________ intelligence and ________ intelligence are often combined into a single type: emotional intelligence.

  1. interpersonal; intrapersonal
  2. intrapersonal; naturalist
  3. logical–mathematical; interpersonal
  4. musical; linguistic


Part 8: Memory

Ben is asked to memorize the words canine, feline, and avian. He remembers the words by associating them with their synonyms: dog, cat, and bird. This is an example of ________ encoding.

  1. acoustic
  2. semantic
  3. sensory
  4. visual

According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, ________.

  1. colors are more easily named when they appear printed in that color
  2. happy memories are processed better than sad memories
  3. memories are processed the same way that a computer processes information
  4. short-term memory itself has different forms

What type of memories do we consciously try to remember and recall?

  1. explicit memories
  2. implicit memories
  3. sensory memories
  4. short-term memories


The act of getting information out of memory storage and back into conscious awareness is known as ________.

  1. encoding
  2. hyperthymesia
  3. retrieval
  4. storage

Elaborative rehearsal involves ________.

  1. immediately applying new information to a practical problem
  2. organizing information into manageable bits or chunks
  3. sleeping immediately after learning new information to allow your mind to process it
  4. thinking about the meaning of the new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory

What is episodic memory?

  1. information about events we have personally experienced
  2. knowledge about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts
  3. storage of facts and events we have personally experienced
  4. type of implicit memory that stores information about how to do things

Remembering ________ is a good example of episodic memory.

  1. how a hamburger tastes even though you have never tasted it yourself
  2. how to use the microwave
  3. what the word January means
  4. your first day of school

I am trying to learn the names of all 50 states. While I am actively remembering and recalling this information, it is considered ________.

  1. explicit memory
  2. implicit memory
  3. procedural memory
  4. sensory memory

When people say you never forget how to ride a bike, they are referring to ________ memory, also called non-declarative memory.

  1. explicit
  2. implicit
  3. semantic
  4. sensory

When experiencing ________ amnesia, you experience loss of memory for events that occurred prior to the trauma. When experiencing ________ amnesia, you cannot remember new information.

  1. -retro; flashbulb
  2. anterograde; retrograde
  3. flashbulb; retro-antero
  4. retrograde; anterograde

Lisa puts five quarters into the parking meter every time she goes downtown. However, when asked, Lisa cannot say if the head on a quarter is facing left or right. This may be an example of ________, because Lisa never paid attention to the picture in the first place.

  1. effortful processing
  2. effortless processing
  3. encoding failure
  4. enigmatic processing

Elena finds it very difficult to remember a long string of numbers, so she tries to memorize three numbers at a time. Later, she is able to repeat the numbers correctly because she grouped the numbers into more manageable groups of three. This is an example of ________.

  1. chunking
  2. elaborative rehearsal
  3. mnemonic device
  4. persistence

Which of the following is an example of a mnemonic device?

  1. dividing your telephone number into groups of numbers to remember it easier
  2. drinking coffee when you study for your math exam, then drinking coffee at your exam to reproduce the mental state you had when you studied
  3. using a biofeedback machine to track your alpha waves during an exam
  4. using the acronym “HOMES” to remember the names of the five Great Lakes

Which of the following statements about eyewitness testimony is correct?

  1. Eyewitness testimony is always reliable.
  2. Eyewitness testimony is never reliable.
  3. Eyewitness testimony is reliable for events that do not involve crime.
  4. Eyewitness testimony is vulnerable to the power of suggestion.

Which of the following is not a way you can use what you know about memory to help you remember the names of all 50 states?

  1. memorize five states at a time—group the information into a more manageable size
  2. sing the names of the 50 states to the tune of “Happy Birthday”
  3. stay up the night before your exam to maximize the amount of time you have to study
  4. think of something you might do in each state if you were on a vacation in that state

What is the main idea of levels of processing theory?

  1. Aerobic exercise promotes neurogenesis.
  2. If you want to remember a piece of information, you should think about it more deeply and link it to other information and memories to make it more meaningful.
  3. In order to remember information, you should build a web of retrieval cues to help you access material when you want to remember it.
  4. Overlearning can help prevent storage decay.


Part 9 : Lifespan Development

________ development involves learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity.

  1. artistic
  2. cognitive
  3. emotional
  4. psychosocial

________ development involves emotions, personality, and social relationships.

  1. mental
  2. physical
  3. psychological
  4. psychosocial

The concept conservation refers to ________.

  1. knowing that even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal in size as long as nothing has been removed or added
  2. knowing that symbols represent words, images, and ideas
  3. thinking logically about real (concrete) events
  4. understanding that objects can be changed and then returned to their original form

Which term refers to the adjustment of a schema by adding information similar to what is already known?

  1. assimilation
  2. conservation
  3. egocentrism
  4. reversibility

A ________ is any environmental agent—biological, chemical, or physical—that causes damage.

  1. contaminant
  2. mutagen
  3. teratogen
  4. zygote

What does nature refer to in the nature vs. nurture debate?

  1. cognitive capacity
  2. environment and culture
  3. genes and biology
  4. language acquisition

What does nurture refer to in the nature vs. nurture debate?

  1. biology
  2. environment and culture
  3. genetics
  4. sexual preference

Between birth and one year, infants are dependent on their caregivers; therefore, caregivers who are responsive and sensitive to their infant’s needs help their baby to develop a sense of the world as a safe, predictable place. What is the primary developmental task of this stage?

  1. autonomy vs. shame/doubt
  2. identity vs. confusion
  3. industry vs. inferiority
  4. trust vs. mistrust

18-month-old Gordon learned the schema for apples. When Gordon sees tomatoes at the grocery store, he says, “Look mommy, apples!” His mother tells him that the food he sees at the store is a tomato, not an apple. He now has separate schemata for tomatoes and apples. This exemplifies ________.

  1. accommodation
  2. assimilation
  3. exclusion
  4. inclusion

As toddlers (ages 1–3 years) begin to explore their world, they learn that they can control their actions and act on the environment to get results. What is the primary developmental task of this stage?

  1. autonomy vs. shame/doubt
  2. industry vs. inferiority
  3. initiative vs. guilt
  4. trust vs. mistrust

Children in the ________ stage can use abstract thinking to problem solve, look at alternative solutions, and test these solutions.

  1. concrete operational
  2. formal operational
  3. preoperational
  4. sensorimotor

Madeline is seven months old. Her mother is eating a cookie and Madeline wants some. Her mother hides the cookie under a napkin, but Madeline is not fooled. She knows the cookie is still there. What does this exemplify?

  1. egocentrism
  2. object permanence
  3. reversibility
  4. stranger anxiety

Jory, a six year old, is picking out a card for his mother’s birthday. He picks the card with a picture of Lightning McQueen, reasoning that since he loves Cars his mother does to. What does this exemplify?

  1. conservation
  2. egocentrism
  3. pretend play
  4. reversibility

Elroy decided not to cheat on the exam because he would fail the class if he was caught. What stage of moral development does this exemplify?

  1. conventional
  2. formal operational
  3. post-conventional
  4. pre-conventional

Annaliese knows that her friend is paying an online service to write a term paper. This bothers her, but she knows that if she tells the teacher everyone will think she is a snitch. She decides her friends’ approval is more important, so she says nothing about the cheating. What stage of moral reasoning does this exemplify?

  1. conventional
  2. formal operational
  3. post-conventional
  4. pre-conventional

Carissa’s parents let her stay up as late as she wants. She is allowed to pick out her own clothes and decide when and what she wants to eat. Her parents act more like her friends than authority figures. What kind of parenting style is this?

  1. authoritarian
  2. authoritative
  3. Freudian
  4. permissive

Which parenting style is most encouraged in modern America?

  1. authoritarian
  2. authoritative
  3. disorganized
  4. permissive

What is the primary psychosocial milestone of childhood?

  1. confirming one’s sexual orientation
  2. controlling the id
  3. developing a positive sense of self
  4. developing a secure attachment to a caregiver


Part 10: Motivation and Emotion

Drive theory states that deviations from ________ create physiological needs that result in psychological drive states that direct behavior to meet the need.

  1. biology
  2. emotions
  3. homeostasis
  4. motivations

The hierarchy of needs is the spectrum of needs ranging from basic ________ needs to ________ needs to self-actualization.

  1. biological; social
  2. social; imaginary
  3. special; biological
  4. special; imaginary

Cici firmly believes that every child deserves a loving parent. She becomes a foster parent because she knows that it is the right thing to do. Cici becomes a foster parent because of ________ motivation.

  1. extra
  2. extrinsic
  3. instinct
  4. intrinsic

Luis works part-time after school to earn money so he can afford a secondhand motorcycle. Luis is working because of ________ motivation.

  1. emotion
  2. extrinsic
  3. habit
  4. intrinsic

Sweating and shivering are responses created due to internal temperature fluctuations, and they are designed to bring the body back into ________.

  1. alignment
  2. homeostasis
  3. locus
  4. neutral

In the following sentence, identify the extrinsic motivation. Kit, who lives with her father, maintains a 3.5 grade average in order to keep her phone, visits her mother every weekend because she wants to, and joins the high school basketball team because she enjoys the sport.

  1. joining the wrestling team
  2. living with her father
  3. maintaining a 3.5 grade average
  4. visiting her mother

Thalia suffers from insomnia. She tries everything, and she finally develops the habit of counting backward when she wants to sleep but cannot. Thalia finds that she falls asleep much easier once she starts counting backward, so she continues to do so. ________ theory suggests that she continues this habit because it results in homeostasis.

  1. drive
  2. feedback
  3. James-Lange
  4. motivational

Which of the following is something an advocate for arousal theory might observe?

  1. We become accustomed to boredom and learn to enjoy it.
  2. We become accustomed to excitement and learn to enjoy it.
  3. When we are bored we look for excitement; when we are overexcited we wish for more peace.
  4. When we are sleepy we should sleep; when we are hungry we should eat.

If you believe you will win the hot dog eating competition, then you have a sense of ________, and you are more likely to enter the hot dog eating competition.

  1. extrinsic motivation
  2. fulfillment
  3. instinct
  4. self-efficacy

In the following sentence, identify the intrinsic motivation. Leela, age 16, attends free lectures at the community college because she loves to learn, she visits her grandmother to hear about her mother’s childhood, and she cooks dinner and cleans the house once a week to earn her allowance.

  1.  attending free lectures because she loves to learn
  2. cleaning the house to earn her allowance
  3. cooking dinner to earn her allowance
  4. visiting her grandmother to hear about her mother’s childhood

Research shows that receiving some sort of extrinsic reinforcement for engaging in behaviors that we enjoy leads to those behaviors ________.

  1. creating an attraction/repulsion complex
  2. motivating us to engage in different behaviors
  3. no longer providing that same enjoyment
  4. providing twice as much enjoyment

Some studies show that ________ motivation may not be entirely vulnerable to the effects of extrinsic reinforcements; in fact, reinforcements such as verbal praise might actually increase ________ motivation.

  1. emotional
  2. extrinsic
  3. habitual
  4. intrinsic


Part 11: Personality

________ theorists attempt to explain our personality by identifying our stable characteristics and ways of behaving.

  1. character
  2. Jungian
  3. Rorschach
  4. trait

________ describes a proportion of difference among people that is attributed to genetics.

  1. heritability
  2. personality
  3. temperament
  4. trait

A(an) ________ locus of control is the belief that our outcomes are outside of our control; an ________ locus of control is the belief that we control our own outcomes.

  1. congruent; incongruent
  2. external; internal
  3. internal; external
  4. real; ideal

Sigmund Freud suggested that people who are dominated by their ________ might be narcissistic and impulsive.

  1. ego
  2. id
  3. superego
  4. unconscious

According to Sigmund Freud, an adult who smokes, drinks, overeats, or bites her nails is fixated in the ________ stage of her psychosexual development.

  1. anal
  2. genital
  3. oral
  4. phallic

Ingrid is energized by being alone, speaks slowly and softly, and avoids attention. Carl Jung would call her a(an) ________.

  1. extrovert
  2. humanist
  3. introvert
  4. neo-Freudian

Jessica believes that she succeeds in high school because she works hard, earned a place on the basketball team because she practices constantly, and cooks well because she takes cooking classes. Julian Rotter would say that Jessica has ________.

  1. an external locus on control
  2. an internal locus of control
  3. good self-regulation
  4. poor self-regulation

Kim believed he failed his math class because the test was too hard, passed his psychology class because the professor passed every student in the class, and didn’t get the internship because the manager didn’t like him. Julian Rotter would say that Kim has ________.

  1. a dependent personality
  2. an external locus of control
  3. an internal locus of control
  4. low self-efficacy

What is the main idea of the behavioral perspective on personality?

  1. Personality is formed solely in childhood.
  2. Personality is significantly shaped by the biology of the organism.
  3. Personality is significantly shaped by the reinforcements and consequences outside of the organism.
  4. Personality theory should be based on social health.


Part 12: Social Psychology

Kara gets an F on her social psychology exam. Then she goes home and gets into an argument with her roommate, Lee. Lee assumes Kara is yelling at him because she likes to bully him, not because she had a bad day. Lee is making a ________.

  1. central attitude shift
  2. central attribution error
  3. fundamental attitude shift
  4. fundamental attribution error

Following an outcome, ________ are those attributions that enable us to see ourselves in favorable light.

  1. egocentric bias
  2. fundamental bias
  3. interpersonal bias
  4. self-serving bias

A(n) ________ is the evaluation of or feelings toward a person, idea, or object that are typically positive or negative.

  1. attitude
  2. cognition
  3. feeling
  4. sense

Which type of persuasion involves an indirect route that relies on association of peripheral cues to associate positivity with a message?

  1. cognitive route
  2. foot-in-the-door
  3. head-in-the-sand
  4. peripheral route

Which type of persuasion involves encouraging a person to agree to a small favor or to buy a small item, only to later request a larger favor or purchase of a larger item?

  1. central cognitive
  2. foot-in-the-door
  3. head-in-the-sand
  4. peripheral route

Which type of persuasion involves logic-driven arguments using data and facts to convince people of an argument’s worthiness?

  1. central route
  2. cognitive dissonance
  3. foot-in-the-door
  4. peripheral route

What is the main point of the Stanford prison experiment?

  1. social roles are powerful determinants of human behavior
  2. students cannot be relied upon to act appropriately
  3. students cannot be trusted in roles of authority
  4. Zimbardo was an unethical researcher

Which statement about Sternberg’s triangular theory of love is most accurate?

  1. There are five types of love that can be described from the three components of love.
  2. There are three components of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment.
  3. There are three components of love: romance, fatuous, and infatuation.
  4. There are three types of love that can be described from the three components of love.

Which statement about Sternberg’s triangular theory of love is incorrect?

  1. Different aspects of love are hierarchical. For example, companionate love is much better and longer lasting than consummate love.
  2. Different aspects of love might be more prevalent at different life stages.
  3. Healthy relationships will have all three components of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment.
  4. Seven types of love can be described from the three components of love.

What is the main point of the textbook discussion of Milgram’s obedience study?

  1. Groups will obey authority to the point of potentially causing serious harm to another person.
  2. Individuals will obey authority to the point of potentially causing serious harm to another person.
  3. Milgram was unethical.
  4. The Milgram study could never be repeated again because too many people know about it.

Which of the following strategies would effectively reduce racism?

  1. teaching children to avoid situations that might lead them to witness racism
  2. teaching children to conform to social expectations that discourage racism in public but ignore racism as long as it is privately expressed
  3. teaching children to ignore racism until we have eliminated racism from our society
  4. teaching children to think independently and challenge social norms that promote racism

Diane and Bruce share their intimate thoughts and emotions and are physically attracted to each other, but their love does not contain any expectations beyond that. Their love is called ________.

  1. companionate
  2. empty
  3. liking
  4. romantic

Rhona and Jerome share each other’s thoughts and feelings and are prepared to support each other, but they do not feel physical attraction. Their love is called ________.

  1. companionate
  2. consummate
  3. fatuous
  4. romantic

Which of the following best exemplifies prosocial behavior?

  1. Avery forgets to call his grandmother on Mother’s Day.
  2. Jason is blackmailed by Brianna.
  3. Mateo’s mother provides child support to Mateo’s father because of a court order.
  4. Tyler visits his aunt once a week to bring her groceries.

Suppose you are walking down a street. A woman has fallen down, but because there are so many people around it does not occur to you that you should help. You just assume someone else is about to help her and keep walking. This is an example of ________.

  1. aggression
  2. cognitive dissonance
  3. diffusion of responsibility
  4. prosocial behavior

Janeka does poorly on her psychology final, so she picks on her mother’s ability to cook. A frustration aggression theorist might explain this by focusing on ________.

  1. the way Janeka’s frustration with her exam led her to be aggressive toward her mother
  2. the way Janeka’s frustration with her mother led her to do poorly on her exam
  3. which situational factors led Janeka to do poorly on her exam
  4. which dispositional factors led Janeka to do poorly on her exam

Fatima generalizes that all men are irresponsible players, cheaters, and liars. When it comes to men, Fatima may be applying ________: negative beliefs about individuals based solely on their membership in a group.

  1. cognitive dissonance
  2. diffusion of responsibility
  3. social exchange
  4. stereotypes

Mona works at a bank. When Luis, a Colombian man, arrives to drop off his paycheck she pretends to be busy and directs him to another teller. She does this whenever a non-White person wants assistance. This is an example of ________.

  1. aggression
  2. discrimination
  3. prejudice
  4. stereotype

Fantasia believes that people with blue eyes are somehow more creative than other people. Whenever Fantasia encounters a person that has blue eyes and is creative, she places greater importance on this evidence supporting her already existing belief. At the same time, Fantasia ignores any evidence that people without blue eyes might display exceptional creativity. This is called a ________.

  1. confirmation bias
  2. confirmation preconception
  3. confirmation preference
  4. confirmation prejudice

Which of the following is the best example of central route persuasion?

  1. anti-smoking advertisements that rely on celebrity spokespeople advocating for reduction in cigarette use
  2. anti-smoking advertisements that use charts and graphs to show how many people die from smoking-related causes each year
  3. encouraging your parents to quit smoking by switching to chewing tobacco, then convincing them to chew less tobacco each week
  4. supporting your sister who has decided to go cold turkey in order to quit smoking

Which of the following is the best example of the foot-in-the-door technique of persuasion?

  1. anti-smoking advertisements that rely on celebrity spokespeople advocating for reduction in cigarette use
  2. anti-smoking advertisements that use charts and graphs to show how many people die from smoking-related causes each year
  3. getting your parents to agree to cut their smoking down by a few cigarettes, then asking them to quit altogether
  4. supporting your sister who has decided to go cold turkey in order to quit smoking

Which of the following is an example of a self-serving bias?

  1. Leonard attributes earning a good grade in his psychology class to the fact that he is an exceptionally hard working student who is also incredibly smart. He blames the poor grade he received in his sociology class on having a bad teacher who gave hard exams.
  2. Leonard gets a bad grade in his psychology class and a good grade in his sociology class, so he believes he should study harder to prepare for his next psychology exam.
  3. Leonard gets bad grades in sociology and psychology, so he switches his major to biology because he will like it more.
  4. Leonard gets good grades in sociology and psychology, so he sends his professors a card thanking them for what good professors they are.

Penny gets an acting job on Friday that she attributes to her good acting. She doesn’t get the next acting job; therefore, she blames the casting director for not wanting to hire a woman. This is an example of ________.

  1. racism
  2. self-fulfilling prophecy
  3. self-serving bias
  4. social loafing


Part 13: Stress, Lifestyle, and Health

________ is the kind of stress that exceeds the optimal level, is no longer a positive force, and becomes excessive and debilitating.

  1. distress
  2. eustress
  3. mega-stress
  4. over-stress

________ is a state of intense engagement in an activity; it is usually experienced while participating in creative work and leisure endeavors.

  1. flow
  2. happiness
  3. momentum
  4. oneness

Which kind of psychology seeks to identify and promote those qualities that lead to happy, fulfilled, and contented lives?

  1. eustress psychology
  2. positive psychology
  3. psychology of joy
  4. self-psychology

Which term refers to mental or behavioral efforts used to manage problems relating to stress, including the cause and the unpleasant feelings and emotions it produces?

  1. autopilot
  2. biofeedback
  3. coping
  4. distress

People who reach the ________ level of stress feel burned out; they are fatigued, exhausted, and their performance begins to decline.

  1. distress
  2. eustress
  3. primary
  4. secondary

Noticing that you have difficulty concentrating during and after periods of prolonged stress exemplifies how stress can have a negative ________ impact.

  1. cognitive
  2. emotional
  3. physical
  4. social

Jade hears a rattle. When she turns around she sees a rattlesnake inches from her leg. Her pupils dilate, her heart pounds, and she begins to sweat. This response is called the ________ response.

  1. emotion-threat
  2. eustress-distress
  3. fight-or-flight
  4. flight-or-fright

Keegan is a police officer. She was recently placed on administrative leave because she was shot during an armed robbery. Since the shooting, she can’t stop thinking about how it felt to be shot, she is often angry with her husband, she jumps when she hears a loud noise, and she takes a 15 minute detour when driving home to avoid the neighborhood where it happened. Keegan probably suffers from ________.

  1. physiological stressors related to her shooting
  2. posttraumatic stress disorder
  3. prolonged exposure to cortisol
  4. the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome

Brizan has just lost his job. He is proactive in trying to resolve this source of stress: He immediately uses the Internet to look up other jobs in his field and plans to eliminate non-essentials from his budget to make his savings last longer. Which type of coping approach is Brizan using?

  1. avoidant
  2. emotion focused
  3. problem focused
  4. stress reduction

Oleksiy is an adjunct professor in the Department of Fine Arts. He applied for a full-time job recently, which he did not get. He tries to put this situation in a positive light, reminding himself that he will have more time to produce artwork if he is not working a full-time job. He also reminds himself that some of his friends from grad school can’t find work related to art in any way. Which type of coping approach is Oleksiy using?

  1. cognitive emotional
  2. emotion focused
  3. problem focused
  4. stress free

Nawaz and his boyfriend break up. Nawaz makes an internal attribution for this outcome. Complete the sentence to show an internal attribution that Nawaz could make. My boyfriend broke up with me because ________.

  1. He can’t appreciate how wonderful I am.
  2. His parents think he should focus on school.
  3. I am unlovable.
  4. We were not right for each other.

Lydia is often described as having a positive outlook on life. She assumes the best of people and situations. Lydia exemplifies ________.

  1. negative affectivity
  2. optimism
  3. positive psychology
  4. Type A personality

Paolo is a writer and when he sits down in front of his computer he can write for hours, forgetting to eat and ignoring his phone because he is intensely engaged in writing. While he is writing, Paolo is experiencing ________.

  1. absorption
  2. flow
  3. passion
  4. personality

Which of the following statements about the relationship between stress and performance is true?

  1. As stress levels decrease from moderate to low, performance also decreases.
  2. As stress levels decrease from moderate to low, performance increases.
  3. As stress levels increase from low to moderate, performance also increases.
  4. As stress levels increase from low to moderate, performance decreases.

Which of the following is a negative effect of extended cortisol release caused by chronic or prolonged stress?

  1. The heart is subjected to abnormal pressure.
  2. The immune system is weakened.
  3. The lungs are placed are under stress.
  4. The thyroid is damaged.


Part 14: Psychological Disorders

Which classification system is used by most mental health professionals in the United States of America?

  1. Desperate Social and Mental Disorders
  2. Determinants of Social Mental Disorders
  3. Determining Statistical Manifestation of Disorders
  4. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

A panic disorder is a type of ________disorder characterized by panic attacks, along with at least one month of worry about panic attacks or self-defeating behavior related to the attacks.

  1. anxiety
  2. generalized
  3. safety
  4. social

Which childhood disorder is characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication and repetitive patterns of behavior or interests?

  1. antisocial personality disorder
  2. attention deficit disorder
  3. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  4. autism spectrum disorder

People with ________ disorders experience thoughts and urges that are intrusive and unwanted and/or the need to engage in repetitive behaviors or mental acts.

  1. anxiety
  2. obsessive-compulsive
  3. personality
  4. phobia

Which of the following defines antisocial personality disorder?

  1. instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and mood
  2. lack of regard for others’ rights, impulsivity, deceitfulness, irresponsibility, and lack of remorse over misdeeds
  3. overinflated and unjustified sense of self-importance
  4. pervasive need for perfectionism that interferes with the ability to complete tasks

Which psychological disorder is characterized by major disturbances in thought, perception, and behavior?

  1. anxiety
  2. bipolar
  3. personality
  4. schizophrenia

________ delusions involve the (false) belief that other people or agencies are plotting to harm the person.

  1. grandiose
  2. hallucination
  3. paranoid
  4. somatic

Donna exhibits two separate personalities, each well-defined and distinct from one another, so Dr. Paulson diagnosed Donna with ________ disorder.

  1. anxiety
  2. dissociative identity
  3. personality
  4. schizophrenia

Yuri experiences excessive, distressing, and persistent fear or anxiety about heights. Yuri suffers from a(n) ________.

  1. mood disorder
  2. obsessive-compulsive disorder
  3. phobia
  4. psychosis

Miguel worries excessively about things beyond his control, and his worries often interfere with his life. He avoids driving because he worries about car accidents. He calls his parents twice a day because he worries they are dead. He checks his credit card statement three times a day because he worries about identity theft. Miguel probably suffers from ________.

  1. free-floating anxiety disorder
  2. generalized anxiety disorder
  3. obsessive-compulsive disorder
  4. persistent depressive disorder

Due to Dominique’ s obsessive-compulsive disorder, she may ________.

  1. exhibit an extreme fear of water
  2. insist that she hears voices
  3. refuse to leave her bed due to anxiety over what might happen during the day
  4. wash her hands every 10 minutes throughout the day.

Dr. Griffiths diagnosed Manuel with major depressive disorder because he ________.

  1. appears tearful to others and spends weeks at a time feeling sad, empty, and hopeless
  2. exhibits three separate personalities, each distinct from the other
  3. hates being outside the home alone
  4. refuses to leave his room due to anxiety over what might happen during the day

Janice is in the middle of a distinct period of an abnormally and persistently elevated mood. In the last week she has cleaned her house from top to bottom (breaking windows and dishes in the process), bought a new car that she can’t afford, and dug up most of her yard in case she might want a garden next year. Janice is experiencing ________.

  1. body dysmorphia
  2. flight of ideas
  3. mania
  4. rapid cycling

If Laura has bipolar disorder, then she ________.

  1. experiences flashbacks interspersed with depression
  2. never thinks about the risk that a major depressive episode will follow a manic episode
  3. often experiences mood states that vacillate between depression and mania
  4. once started a day euphoric and ended the day tired

Donald has an overinflated and unjustified sense of self-importance. He is preoccupied with fantasies of success and believes that he is entitled to special treatment from others. Which of the following diagnoses accounts for Nathan’s personality?

  1. borderline personality disorder
  2. histrionic personality disorder
  3. narcissistic personality disorder
  4. schizotypal personality disorder

From an early age, Kwaku got into trouble constantly. He continually violates the rights of others and he often lies, fights, and has problems with the law. Generally, he is impulsive and fails to think ahead. He is frequently deceitful and manipulative in order to get the things he wants, and he never regrets his misdeeds or considers the feelings of those he has harmed. Which of the following diagnoses accounts for Kwaku’s personality?

  1. antisocial personality disorder
  2. dependent personality disorder
  3. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
  4. paranoid personality disorder

Egon can’t pay attention in class. He is easily distracted, won’t sit still, and displays poor impulse control. The school counselor suggested that his parents take him to a doctor to have him assessed for ________.

  1. Asperger’s syndrome
  2. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  3. autism spectrum disorder
  4. schizoid personality disorder

Jeff is an unforgiving perfectionist who would rather deliver work a week late than turn in a project with even minor mistakes. In fact, he spends so much time working that he never has time for anything else. Jeff is known to be rigid, inflexible, and stubborn, and he never compromises. Which of the following diagnoses accounts for Jeff’s personality?

  1. histrionic personality disorder
  2. narcissistic personality disorder
  3. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
  4. schizoid personality disorder


Part 15: Therapy and Treatment

Humanistic therapy is also called ________ therapy.

  1. client-centered
  2. cognitive-behavioral
  3. ECT
  4. personality-focused

Aversive conditioning is a ________.

  1. classical conditioning therapeutic technique in which a client learns a new response to a stimulus that has previously elicited an undesirable behavior
  2. counterconditioning technique that pairs an unpleasant stimulant with an undesirable behavior
  3. form of psychotherapy that aims to change cognitive distortions and self-defeating behaviors
  4. therapeutic orientation that employs principles of learning to help clients change undesirable behaviors

What is the goal of humanistic therapy?

  1. helping clients change undesirable behaviors
  2. helping people become more self-aware and accepting of themselves
  3. learning a new response to a stimulus
  4. treating a client’s fear or anxiety

In the free association technique of psychoanalysis, the ________.

  1. client engages in self-reflection prior to the session to decide what to discuss
  2. client keeps a dream diary to guide therapy sessions
  3. client says whatever comes to mind at the moment
  4. therapist hypnotizes the client

Elena is attending mandatory therapy sessions. Her doctor just wants her to talk about her childhood. What kind of psychotherapeutic orientation does this exemplify?

  1. behavior therapy
  2. cognitive therapy
  3. humanistic therapy
  4. psychodynamic psychotherapy

Renzo’s therapist helps him learn to overcome his fear of dogs through several stages of relaxation techniques. What kind of psychotherapeutic orientation does this exemplify?

  1. aversive conditioning
  2. behavior therapy
  3. client-centered therapy
  4. psychodynamic psychotherapy

Rafael is in therapy, and one of his goals is to overcome his pessimistic attitude. His therapist helps him eliminate thought patterns that lead to distress. For example, he helps Rafael learn to not overgeneralize his likelihood of failing his sociology class based on doing poorly on his first exam. What kind of psychotherapeutic orientation does this exemplify?

  1. cognitive therapy
  2. non-directive therapy
  3. play therapy
  4. psychodynamic psychotherapy

Kaz wants to stop biting his nails, so he rubs a strong bitter paste under his nails to make his nails taste bad. What technique is Kaz using to stop biting his nails?

  1. aversion therapy
  2. aversive conditioning
  3. experience conditioning
  4. exposure therapy

On the advice of her therapist, Thora decides to treat her fear of heights by exposing herself to heights using a stimulus hierarchy. Which form of therapy is she using?

  1. aversion therapy
  2. free association
  3. play therapy
  4. systematic desensitization

Dr. Duncan is a therapist who works with men accused of domestic violence. Although it is difficult, she does her best to be non-judgmental during therapy sessions. Which aspect of client-centered therapy is this?

  1. active listening
  2. client focus
  3. transference
  4. unconditional positive regard

Electroconvulsive therapy is effective in alleviating symptoms for people with ________.

  1. a mood disorder who do not believe in traditional biomedical approaches
  2. ADHD who also suffer from anxiety
  3. auditory hallucinations associated with schizophrenia
  4. severe depression who have not responded to traditional drug therapy

Dr. Xavier encourages his client to relax and say whatever comes to mind at the moment. Dr. Xavier is using ________ to treat his client.

  1. cognitive therapy
  2. free association
  3. rational emotive therapy
  4. transference

Which principle underlies cognitive therapy?

  1. Behavior can be conditioned.
  2. How you think determines how you feel.
  3. Thoughts cannot be changed.
  4. Unconscious thoughts influence behavior.

How is behavior therapy different than psychoanalysis?

  1. Behavior therapy involves free association and dream analysis, while psychoanalysis focuses on the use of classical conditioning to change patterns of thinking.
  2. In behavior therapy, a therapist employs principles of learning to help clients change undesirable behaviors, while psychoanalysis involves digging deeply into one’s unconscious.
  3. In psychoanalysis, a therapist employs principles of learning to help clients change undesirable behaviors, while behavior therapy involves digging deeply into one’s unconscious.
  4. Psychoanalysis involves using free association to work through repressed desires, while behavior therapy focuses on how undesirable behaviors are predicted unconsciously, in our dreams.



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