4 Final exam questions

Criminology CRJ 102

4 points each

1. What cannot be said about white collar crime?

  • Great criminal opportunity comes from the white-collar deviant’s higher position in a company and easier access to the company’s resources.
  • A combination of high position, status, and prestige can provide the greatest opportunity for illegal activities, for both individuals and corporations.
  • Weaker social control also encourages white-collar deviance.
  • Sociologists suggest that greed which can be found among white collar criminals is a psychological abnormality.

2.Which one below is not listed among the victims of corporate crime?

  • law-makers.
  • The environment
  • customers
  • employees.

3. Organized crime

  • refers to the production, supply and financing of illegal markets in goods and services
  • can easily be differentiated from corporate crime.
  • is never individualistic, inter-personal, and finite.
  • is committed by a single employee of respectability and high social status

4. Jeffrey Reiman’s “Social Construction of Crime” argues that

  • We generally focus on the social harm perpetrated by the poor, not by corporations
  • Typical criminal is assumed to be young, minority, urban and poor
  • Media plays a crucial role in reproducing the ‘carnival of mirrors’
  • All of the above

5. Which one below cannot be said about homicide victims?

  • Females are most likely to be victims of domestic homicides and sex-related homicides
  • Men die from homicides and commit homicides more than women.
  • Males were most likely to be victims of drug- (90.5%) and gang-related homicides
  • Homicide rates have been increasing in the USA since 1980

6.  Which one below is not among the reasons why rape cases go undercounted?

  • Officers categorizing complaints as ‘unfounded’ or ‘noncriminal’
  • Expired rape kits, or not using rape kits
  • Ignoring rapes of women thought of as ‘fringe’
  • All of the above are among the reasons.

7. Which one below does not contribute to the “social construction of crime”?

  • Legislatures
  • The police
  • criminal justice studies
  • criminal opportunities

8. Corporate negligence can be considered to be criminal.

a) True

b) False

9. According to Keith Guzik (the author of Making Things Stick), authorities use crime prevention as an excuse to expand techniques and technologies of social control.

a) True

b) False

10. Which one below is not among factors which the surveillance assemblage is composed of?

  • national governments
  • transnational corporations
  • advanced technologies
  • non governmental organizations

11. Surveillance technologies often fail. According to Guzik, which one below is not among the reasons why they fail?

a) Technologies themselves

b) net neutrality supporters

c) local states

d) ordinary people

12.  Sousveillance refers to “the watching of authorities by those below them”.

a) True

b) False

13. Torture is used solely as a means to extract information.

a) True

b) False

14. White collar crimes are among victimless crimes.

a) True

b) False

15. Which one is not considered criminal?

a) overcharging customers

b) adulterated medication

c) ocean dumping

d) decreasing cost of production

16. Which one is true about white collar crime?

  • White collar deviants have weaker criminal motivation- they have no fear of loss, nor do they have greed for gain.
  • White collar deviants have great criminal opportunity and this is usually because of their charm.
  • weaker social control encourages white collar deviance.
  • Penalties are usually stricter than violent crimes.

17. The production, supply and financing of illegal markets in good and services is called

____________________ .

18. According to the United Nations, hooding constitutes torture.

  • True
  • False

19. Geoffrey Skoll, the author of “Terror, Law and Torture”, claims that anti-terror laws are much more expansive and much more open to abuse than common law. Which one below can be an example to this overreach?

  • statutes against conspiracy
  • crimes of association
  • civil law
  • Eight Amendment

20. Organized criminals often financially benefit from the prohibition of goods and services such as drugs, gambling and sex work.

a) True

b) False

21. ________________________ is the incarceration of an arrested person by a national government or law enforcement agency without a trial, and violates many national and international laws, including human rights laws.

22. According to Geoffrey Skoll, the recent development of torture falls into three stages: Anti-communist, war on crime, and war on terror.

a) True

b) False

23. __________________ is reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses.

24. False compliance occurs when the subject resists against torture.

a) True

b) False

25. Which one below is among what came to be called the five techniques or personality softening?

a) Military commissions

b) Deportations

c) Wall standing

d) All of the above

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