31 Practice Test: Introduction and Prenatal Development
1. Bob is the vice-president of a medium sized company in a suburb of Seattle. He has two new cars, a large home with a sauna, new clothes, and takes many trips with his family. He also carries $21,000 of debt on his credit cards and struggles to make his payments. Bob would be considered part of which social class?
A) working class
C) working poor
D) none of the above
2.The middle class may cope with stressors by shopping or traveling. But, according to your reading, the poor are more likely to cope with stress by eating and:
C) going to night clubs
3. The ecological-systems perspective of human develop emphasizes
A) the importance of the physical environment, including pollutants, in affecting development.
B) the relationship between the individual and the environment including social systems such as family, community and school.
C) the comparison of social systems in cultures with various types of subsistence patterns with and emphasis on hunter-gatherers and herding societies.
D) the extent to which a person acts according to the “pleasure principle” or the “reality principle.”
4. Sharon wants to show how third graders in the United States learn from “reading buddy” programs. She established several of these programs in area schools and firmly believes that they are successful. She constructs a survey to give to her colleagues who support the program and offers the results to the local school board to promote the growth of such programs. This example illustrates which aspect of research?
A) The use of simple random samples.
B) Observational studies.
C) Confirmation bias.
D) Secondary analysis.
5. Researcher Smith uses a variety of techniques to learn as much as possible about Mr. Jordan who had to relocate to Houston after losing everything in Hurricane Katrina. Researcher Smith is using which method of research?
C) Case study
D) Cross-sectional study
6.According to Erikson, a three month old is in which psychosocial stage?
A) autonomy vs. shame and doubt
B) trust vs. mistrust
C) integrity vs. despair
D) caring vs. doing
7. Drives and urges are relatively quiet during this stage, according to Freud.
A) the anal stage
B) the latent stage
C) the oral stage
D) the genital stage
8. Chad feels guilty because he cheated on an exam. Which part of the self is responsible for this sense of guilt?
A) The ego.
B) The id.
C) The superego.
D) The ‘looking-glass’ self.
9. Learning to think by using symbols such as language is a major part of this stage.
D) Post formal.
10. This stage is experienced in early adulthood, according to Erikson.
A) trust vs. mistrust
B) industry vs. inferiority
C) intimacy vs. isolation
D) identity vs. role confusion
11. The more prolonged the level of stress, the weaker the immune system. What is the independent variable?
A) The duration of stress.
B) The strength of the immune system.
C) The level of stress.
D) The person whose stress level is measured.
12. Sperm and ova have:
A) 23 genes
B) 46 chromosomes
C) 46 pair of genes
D) 23 chromosomes
13. Effects of ARBD (alcohol related birth defects) include:
A) bone damage.
B) heart damage.
C) liver damage.
D) all of the above.
14. An organism is least likely to survive which stage of prenatal development?
A) The germinal stage
B) The embryonic stage
C) The fetal stage
D) Failure rates are the same throughout prenatal development.
15. Which type of births are most common?
A) Birth of dizygotic twins.
B) Birth of monozygotic twins.
C) Birth of dizygotic triplets.
D) Births of monozygotic triplets.
16. A dog learns to sit in order to get a treat. This best illustrates:
A) social learning theory
B) operant conditioning
C) classical conditioning
D) trial and error learning
17. A dog is shocked at the time a bell rings. Eventually, the dog begins to jump in fear at the sound of a bell. What is the unconditioned response?
A) The sound of the bell.
B) The jumping when a bell is sounded.
C) Jumping to the shock.
D) The administration of the shock.
18. This method of prepared childbirth encourages mothers to have a coach to help guide them through the birth process.
A) The Dick-Read method.
B) The Lamaze method.
C) The Leboyer method.
D) The Chambers method.
19. This theorist emphasized the potential a child has to learn if given guidance.
20. The cohort effect is most noticeable with which level of analysis?
A) microsystem analysis
B) macrosystem analysis
C) exosystem analysis
D) chronosystem analysis
Correct answer(s): D
Answers to Exercises