63 EXAM: Childhood

1. The average newborn doubles her birthweight in:
A) the first year.
B) four months.
C) six months.
D) two months.
Correct answer(s): B

2. The slowest-to-mature brain lobe is the:
A) striate cortex.
B) parietal cortex.
C) frontal cortex.
D) temporal cortex.
Correct answer(s): C

3. In the process of transient exuberance, great brain growth is seen, especially in the area of the:
A) dendrites.
B) axons.
C) nucleus.
D) axon terminals.
Correct answer(s): A

4. The sense that is the least developed at birth is:
A) vision.
B) taste.
C) smell.
D) hearing.
Correct answer(s): A

5. The difference between gross and fine motor skills is whether they:
A) are controllable.
B) involve mental or physical skills.
C) are due more to nature or nurture.
D) involve bigger or smaller muscles.
Correct answer(s): D

6. Unusual swelling of a toddler’s face and abdomen and thin, colorless hair are symptoms of:
A) rickets.
B) marasmus.
C) hypoglycemia.
D) kwashiorkor.
Correct answer(s): D

7. During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:
A) learn to use language to express sensations.
B) think logically and critically.
C) use senses and motor skills to understand the world.
D) think of past and future events.
Correct answer(s): C

8. Active experimentation is part of _______ in Piaget’s substages of sensorimotor intelligence.
A) stage six.
B) stage three.
C) stage four.
D) stage five.
Correct answer(s): D

9. Babbling:
A) is found only in infants from the Western Hemisphere.
B) precedes cooing.
C) occurs only if the infant can hear.
D) is universal.
Correct answer(s): D

10. On average, children begin saying recognizable words at about:
A) 24 months old.
B) 3 months old.
C) 12 months old.
D) 6 months old.
Correct answer(s): C

11. A match between a child’s temperament and the demands of the environment is called:
A) goodness of fit.
B) synchrony.
C) organismic specificity.
D) temperamental enhancement.
Correct answer(s): A

12. Secure attachment makes a toddler:
A) cling to the mother.
B) willing to explore.
C) self-centered.
D) try to talk.
Correct answer(s): B

13. Angie does not notice when her mother leaves the day-care center and ignores her mother when she returns. Angie’s behavior is:
A) insecure-resistant attachment.
B) insecure-avoidant attachment.
C) secure attachment.
D) disoriented attachment.
Correct answer(s): B

14. Cooley’s looking-glass self helps us understand how a child:
A) establishes a body image.
B) develops a self-concept.
C) learns gender roles.
D) learns how to imitate the behavior of others.
Correct answer(s): B

15. The process of myelination involves:
A) bone growth.
B) parents’ teaching their children.
C) nerve insulation.
D) muscle growth.
Correct answer(s): C

16. Family capital
A) is another term for stepfamily.
B) can be used to help one’s children in school.
C) refers to financial assistance offered to families by the government.
D) typically helps families obtain better healthcare.
Correct answer(s): B

17. The best example of a fine motor skill is:
A) roller-skating around the block.
B) swimming across a pool.
C) using scissors to cut paper.
D) playing catch with a football.
Correct answer(s): C

18. Piaget called cognitive development between the ages of two and six ______ intelligence.
A) preoperational
B) egocentric
C) Symbiotic
D) operational
Correct answer(s): A

19. Vygotsky suggested that each individual is surrounded by a zone of:
A) proximal development.
B) distal development.
C) potentiality.
D) possibilities.
Correct answer(s): A

20. Preschoolers do not use private speech to:
A) review what they know.
B) communicate with those around them.
C) explain events to themselves.
D) decide what to do.
Correct answer(s): B

21. “I catched two mices in a trap” is an example of:
A) literal translation.
B) egocentric speech.
C) the past imperfect.
D) overregularization.
Correct answer(s): D

22. According to Erikson, as children develop self-awareness and realize their own mistakes, they feel:
A) shamed.
B) empowered.
C) anger.
D) guilty.
Correct answer(s): D

23. When parents expect unquestioning obedience from their children, their parenting pattern is:
A) authoritarian.
B) dictatorial.
C) tyrannical.
D) authoritative.
Correct answer(s): A

24. Aptitude tests are designed to measure:
A) capacity for divergent thinking.
B) how much has been learned.
C) potential for accomplishment.
D) verbal abilities.
Correct answer(s): C

25. Todd runs around the classroom, can’t seem to sit still or concentrate, and is easily excited. He is most likely to be diagnosed as having:
A) a sensory deficit.
B) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
C) mental retardation.
D) childhood schizophrenia.
Correct answer(s): B

26. The most devastating problem for children with autistic spectrum disorder as they grow up is their lack of:
A) social understanding.
B) motor skills.
C) intelligence.
D) imagination.
Correct answer(s): A

27. According to Piaget, the distinguishing characteristic of school-age children is that they are:
A) imaginative.
B) friendly.
C) logical.
D) fearless.
Correct answer(s): C

28. When we revamp or change our old ways of thinking because of new information, Piaget calls this:
A) assimilation.
B) imitation.
C) accommodation.
D) historical context.
Correct answer(s): C

29. The infant’s first sensorimotor activities are:
A) anticipation.
B) first acquired adaptations.
C) active experimentation.
D) reflexes.
Correct answer(s): D

30. Piaget’s stage six of sensorimotor intelligence is known as:
A) mental combinations.
B) interesting observations.
C) primary reactions.
D) new adaptation and anticipation.
Correct answer(s): A

31. Typically, stranger wariness is first noticeable at:
A) 9 months.
B) 12 months.
C) 3 months.
D) 4 months.
Correct answer(s): A

32. Identify Erikson’s second stage of development:
A) attachment vs. self-awareness
B) autonomy vs. shame and doubt
C) synchrony vs. attachment
D) pride vs. shame
Correct answer(s): B

33. Which parenting style is preferred by Lemasters and DeFrain?
A) the teacher-counselor parent
B) the athletic coach
C) the pal
D) the martyr
Correct answer(s): B

34. Preconventional morality involves:
A) an emphasis on reward and punishment.
B) the careful consideration of all options.
C) an emphasis on laws and social order.
D) trying to gain the approval of others.
Correct answer(s): A

35. Lizzie is an extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old whom other children seem to dislike. She would be characterized as a(n):
A) neglected child.
B) withdrawn-rejected child.
C) controversial child.
D) aggressive-rejected child.
Correct answer(s): B

36. The main concern about nutrition in middle childhood in the United States is:
A) a lack of protein in the diet.
B) the lack of calories taken in by children in this age group.
C) the high number of children who are overweight or obese.
D) the consumption of too much calcium.
Correct answer(s): C

37. Stepfamilies reach the last stage of development:
A) after all parents have remarried other partners.
B) just prior to redivorce.
C) after the first year.
D) after about 7 years.
Correct answer(s): D

38. At what age do children develop a theory of mind?
A) 2 years of age
B) 12 years of age
C) 4 years of age
D) 10 years of age
Correct answer(s): C

39. You viewed a video in which Robin Williams helped children understand that his shoe was not alive. This illustrates:
A) the law of conservation
B) animism
C) Centration
D) egocentrism
Correct answer(s): B

40. You viewed a video clip about theory of mind in which researchers found that children who develop a theory of mind early are more likely to:
A) have an unusually large corpus callosum.
B) feel anxiety about what other children may be thinking of them.
C) have a wild imagination that can get them into trouble.
D) are more popular with other children.
Correct answer(s): D

41. An enduring emotional bond between people is known as:
A) unionization.
B) synchrony.
C) attachment.
D) love.
Correct answer(s): C

42. A sign of secure attachment is:
A) refusing to let go of the caregiver’s arm.
B) attempting to be close to the caregiver.
C) playing aimlessly with no contact with the caregiver.
D) expressing fear and anger at the caregiver.
Correct answer(s): B

43. Expressions of insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment include:
A) playing happily.
B) ignoring the caregiver.
C) exploring a new toy.
D) clinging to the caregiver.
Correct answer(s): D

44. Which of the following IS NOT one of Gardner’s multiple intelligences?
A) existential intelligence
B) bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
C) culinary intelligence
D) linguistic intelligence
Correct answer(s): C

45. Identify the statement that best illustrates the cognitive concept called “identity.”
A) “Even though they are an omelet now, they are still two eggs.”
B) “If you’ll let me have one of your cookies, I’ll let you use my new crayons.”
C) “If you give back my doll, we can be friends again.”
D) “Mommy can make my scraped knee well again.”
Correct answer(s): A

46. The term “holophrase” is used to denote:
A) the use of two words to take the place of one.
B) the infant’s use of one word to express a whole thought.
C) a word that is empty of meaning.
D) the relationship of object permanence to language development.
Correct answer(s): B

47. The theorist who believed that children learn language when they are reinforced by parental attention was:
A) B. F. Skinner.
B) Leo Vygotsky.
C) Jean Piaget.
D) Noam Chomsky.
Correct answer(s): A

48. At 6 weeks of age, the infant is capable of:
A) anger.
B) laughter and curiosity.
C) a social smile.
D) stranger wariness.
Correct answer(s): C

49. When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:
A) solitary fear.
B) fear of isolation.
C) separation anxiety.
D) general anxiety.
Correct answer(s): C

50. The first “crisis of life,” according to Erikson, is:
A) trust vs. mistrust.
B) industry vs. inferiority.
C) the oral stage.
D) autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
Correct answer(s): A


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