# 43 Assignment—Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table

As you work these matter and measurement problems, consider and explain:

1. What type of question is it?
2. How do you know what type of question it is?
3. What information are you looking for?
4. What information do they give?
5. How will you go about solving this?
6. Show how to solve the problem.
7. Be able to answer for a different reaction, number, set of conditions, etc.

## Sample Questions

1. Which form of electromagnetic radiation has the longest wavelengths?
2. A line in the spectrum of atomic mercury has a wavelength of 254 nm. When mercury emits a photon of light at this wavelength, what is the frequency of the light?
3. Consider an atom traveling at 1% of the speed of light. The de Broglie wavelength is found to be 1.46 × 10–3 pm. Which element is this?
4. What is the energy of a photon of blue light that has a wavelength of 453 nm?
5. The four lines observed in the visible emission spectrum of hydrogen tell us that:
1. The hydrogen molecules they came from have the formula H4.
2. We could observe more lines if we had a stronger prism.
3. There are four electrons in an excited hydrogen atom.
4. Only certain energies are allowed for the electron in a hydrogen atom.
5. The spectrum is continuous.For questions 6–8, consider the following portion of the energy-level diagram for hydrogen:
 n = 4 –0.1361 × 10–18 J n = 3 –0.2420 × 10–18 J n = 2 –0.5445 × 10–18 J n = 1 –2.178 × 10–18 J
6. For which of the following transitions does the light emitted have the longest wavelength?
1. n = 4 to n = 3
2. n = 4 to n = 2
3. n = 4 to n = 1
4. n = 3 to n = 2
5. n = 2 to n = 1
7. In the hydrogen spectrum, what is the wavelength of light associated with the n = 3 to n = 1 electron transition?
8. When a hydrogen electron makes a transition from n = 3 to n = 1, which of the following statements is true?
1. Energy is emitted.
2. Energy is absorbed.
3. The electron loses energy.
4. The electron gains energy.
5. The electron cannot make this transition.
1. I, IV
2. I, III
3. II, III
4. II, IV
5. V
9. Which of the following is a reasonable criticism of the Bohr model of the atom?
1. It makes no attempt to explain why the negative electron does not eventually fall into the positive nucleus.
2. It does not adequately predict the line spectrum of hydrogen.
3. It does not adequately predict the ionization energy of the valence electron(s) for elements other than hydrogen.
4. It does not adequately predict the ionization energy of the first energy level electrons for one-electron species for elements other than hydrogen.
5. It shows the electrons to exist outside of the nucleus.
10. The energy of the light emitted when a hydrogen electron goes from n = 2 to n = 1 is what fraction of its ground-state ionization energy?
11. Which of the following is incorrect?
1. The emission spectrum of hydrogen contains a continuum of colors.
2. Diffraction produces both constructive and destructive interference.
3. All matter displays both particle and wavelike characteristics.
4. Niels Bohr developed a quantum model for the hydrogen atom.
5. The lowest possible energy state of a molecule or atom is called its ground state.
12. A gamma ray of wavelength 1.00 × 10–8 cm has enough energy to remove an electron from a hydrogen atom.
13. Which of the following best describes an orbital?
1. space where electrons are unlikely to be found in an atom
2. space which may contain electrons, protons, and/or neutrons
3. the space in an atom where an electron is most likely to be found
4. small, walled spheres that contain electrons
5. a single space within an atom that contains all electrons of that atom
14. How many f orbitals have the value n = 3?
15. If n = 2, how many orbitals are possible?
16. Consider the following representation of a 2p-orbital: Which of the following statements best describes the movement of electrons in a p-orbital?

1. The electrons move along the outer surface of the p-orbital, similar to a “figure 8” type of movement.
2. The electrons move within the two lobes of the p-orbital, but never beyond the outside surface of the orbital.
3. The electrons are concentrated at the center (node) of the two lobes.
4. The electrons are only moving in one lobe at any given time.
5. The electron movement cannot be exactly determined.
17. How many electrons in an atom can have the quantum numbers n = 3, l = 2?
18. How many electrons can be contained in all of the orbitals with n = 4?
19. Which of the following combinations of quantum numbers is not allowed?
1. n = 1, l = 1, ml = 0, ms = 1/2
2. n = 3, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = -1/2
3. n = 2, l = 1, ml = -1, ms = 1/2
4. n = 4, l = 3, ml = -2, ms = -1/2
5. n = 4, l = 2, ml = 0, ms = 1/2
20. Which of the following atoms or ions has three unpaired electrons?
1. N
2. O
3. Al
4. S2–
5. Ti2+
21. What is the electron configuration for the barium atom?
22. What is the complete electron configuration of tin?
23. Which of the following statements is true?
1. The exact location of an electron can be determined if we know its energy.
2. An electron in a 2s orbital can have the same n, l, and ml quantum numbers as an electron in a 3s orbital.
3. Ni has two unpaired electrons in its 3d orbitals.
4. In the buildup of atoms, electrons occupy the 4f orbitals before the 6s orbitals.
5. Only three quantum numbers are needed to uniquely describe an electron.
24. What is the statement that “the lowest energy configuration for an atom is the one having the maximum number of unpaired electrons allowed by the Pauli principle in a particular set of degenerate orbitals” known as?
25. An element with the electron configuration [Xe] 6s24f145d7 would belong to which class on the periodic table?
26. Ti has __________ in its d orbitals.
2. 1.18 × 1015s-1
3. Zr
4. 4.39 × 10<sup-19 J
5. D
6. A
7. 1.03 × 10-7 m
8. B
9. C
10. 3/4
11. A
12. T
13. C
14. 0
15. 4
16. E
17. 10
18. 32
19. A
20. A
21. [Xe]6s2
22. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p2
23. C
24. Hund’s rule
25. transition elements
26. two electrons 