55 Communicable (Infectious) Diseases
Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living things that are found everywhere—in air, soil, and water. You can get infected by touching germs.
There are four main kinds of germs:
- Bacteria—one-celled germs that multiply quickly and may release chemicals which can make you sick
- Viruses—capsules that contain genetic material, and use your own cells to multiply
- Fungi—primitive vegetables, like mushrooms or mildew
- Protozoa—one-celled animals that use other living things for food and a place to live
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Bacteria are living things that have only one cell. Under a microscope, they look like balls, rods, or spirals. They are so small that a line of 1,000 could fit across a pencil eraser. Most bacteria won’t hurt you—less than 1 percent makes people sick. Many are helpful. Some bacteria help to digest food, destroy disease-causing cells and give the body needed vitamins. Bacteria are also used in making healthy foods like yogurt and cheese.
But infectious bacteria can make you ill. They reproduce quickly in your body. Many give off chemicals called toxins, which can damage tissue and make you sick. Examples of bacteria that cause infections include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and E. coli.
Antibiotics are the usual treatment. When you take antibiotics, follow the directions carefully. Each time you take antibiotics, you increase the chances that bacteria in your body will learn to resist them. Later, you could get or spread an infection that those antibiotics cannot cure.
Streptococcal infections (strep for short) cause a variety of health problems. There are two types: group A and group B. Antibiotics are used to treat both.
Group A strep causes
- Strep throat—a sore, red throat, sometimes with white spots on the tonsils
- Scarlet fever—red rash on the body
- Impetigo—a skin infection
- Toxic shock syndrome
- Cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease)
Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test during pregnancy can tell if you have it. If you do, I.V. antibiotics during labor can save your baby’s life. Adults can also get group B strep infections, especially if they are elderly or already have health problems. Strep B can cause urinary tract infections, blood infections, skin infections and pneumonia in adults.
In developed countries, such as the United States, many people think TB is a disease of the past. TB, however, is still a leading killer of young adults worldwide. Some 2 billion people—one-third of the world’s population—are thought to be infected with TB bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb).
TB is a chronic bacterial infection. It is spread through the air and usually infects the lungs, although other organs and parts of the body can be involved as well. Most people who are infected with Mtb harbor the bacterium without symptoms (have latent TB), but some will develop active TB disease. According to World Health Organization estimates, each year 8 million people worldwide develop active TB and nearly 2 million die.
One in 10 people who are infected with Mtb may develop active TB at some time in their lives. The risk of developing active disease is greatest in the first year after infection, but active disease often does not occur until many years later.
TB in the United States
In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported 13,799 cases of active TB. While the overall rate of new TB cases continues to decline in the United States since national reporting began in 1953, the annual decrease in TB cases has slowed from an average of 7.1 percent (1993–2000) to the current average of 3.8 percent (2001–2005), according to CDC. In addition to those with active TB, an estimated 10 to 15 million people in the United States have latent TB.
Minorities are affected disproportionately by TB, which occurs among foreign-born individuals nearly nine times as frequently as among people born in the United States. This is partially because they were often exposed to Mtb in their country of origin before moving to the United States. In 2004, a very high percentage of Asians (95 percent) and Hispanics (75 percent) who were born outside the United States were reported to have TB.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by a germ called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but they can also damage other parts of the body. TB spreads through the air when a person with TB of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes or talks. If you have been exposed, you should go to your doctor for tests. You are more likely to get TB if you have a weak immune system.
Symptoms of TB in the lungs may include
- A bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer
- Weight loss
- Coughing up blood or mucus
- Weakness or fatigue
- Fever and chills
- Night sweats
If not treated properly, TB can be deadly. You can usually cure active TB by taking several medicines for a long period of time. People with latent TB can take medicine so that they do not develop active TB.
Viruses are capsules with genetic material inside. They are very tiny, much smaller than bacteria. Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu and warts. They also cause severe illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, smallpox and hemorrhagic fevers.
Viruses are like hijackers. They invade living, normal cells and use those cells to multiply and produce other viruses like themselves. This eventually kills the cells, which can make you sick.
Viral infections are hard to treat because viruses live inside your body’s cells. They are “protected” from medicines, which usually move through your bloodstream. Antibiotics do not work for viral infections. There are a few antiviral medicines available. Vaccines can help prevent you from getting many viral diseases.
Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. The viruses pass through the air and enter your body through your nose or mouth. Between 5% and 20% of people in the U.S. get the flu each year. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies and people with certain chronic illnesses.
Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those of the common cold. They may include
- Body or muscle aches
- Sore throat
Is it a cold or the flu? Colds rarely cause a fever or headaches. Flu almost never causes an upset stomach. And “stomach flu” isn’t really flu at all, but gastroenteritis.
The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms.
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Sneezing, sore throat, a stuffy nose, coughing—everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds.
You can get a cold by touching your eyes or nose after you touch surfaces with cold germs on them. You can also inhale the germs. Symptoms usually begin 2 or 3 days after infection and last 2 to 14 days. Washing your hands and staying away from people with colds will help you avoid colds.However, do not give aspirin to children. And do not give cough medicine to children under four.
There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try
- Getting plenty of rest
- Drinking fluids
- Gargling with warm salt water
- Using cough drops or throat sprays
- Taking over-the-counter pain or cold medicines
Hepatitis B is one type of hepatitis—a liver disease—caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B spreads by contact with an infected person’s blood, semen or other body fluid. An infected woman can give hepatitis B to her baby at birth.
If you get HBV, you may feel as if you have the flu, or you may have no symptoms at all. A blood test can tell if you have it. HBV usually gets better on its own after a few months. If it does not get better, it is called chronic HBV, which lasts a lifetime. Chronic HBV can lead to scarring of the liver, liver failure or liver cancer.
There is a vaccine for HBV. It requires three shots. All babies should get the vaccine, but older children and adults can get it too. If you travel to countries where Hepatitis B is common, you should get the vaccine.
Are you at risk for viral hepatitis? Take this quick Hepatitis Risk Assessment test to find out.
Infectious mononucleosis, or “mono,” is an infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. The virus spreads through saliva, which is why it’s sometimes called “kissing disease.” Mono occurs most often in 15- to 17-year-olds. However, you can get it at any age. Symptoms of mono include
- Sore throat
- Swollen lymph glands
Sometimes you may also have a swollen spleen. Serious problems are rare.
A blood test can show if you have mono. Most people get better in two to four weeks. However, you may feel tired for a few months afterward. Treatment focuses on helping symptoms and includes medicines for pain and fever, warm salt water gargles and plenty of rest and fluids.
If you have ever had athlete’s foot or a yeast infection, you can blame a fungus. A fungus is actually a primitive vegetable. Mushrooms, mold and mildew are examples. Fungi live in air, in soil, on plants and in water. Some live in the human body. Only about half of all types of fungi are harmful.
Some fungi reproduce through tiny spores in the air. You can inhale the spores or they can land on you. As a result, fungal infections often start in the lungs or on the skin. You are more likely to get a fungal infection if you have a weakened immune system or take antibiotics.
Fungi can be difficult to kill. For skin and nail infections, you can apply medicine directly to the infected area. Oral antifungal medicines are also available for serious infections.
Yeast Infections (or Candida)
Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in your body. Usually, your immune system keeps yeast under control. If you are sick or taking antibiotics, it can multiply and cause an infection.
Yeast infections affect different parts of the body in different ways:
- Thrush is a yeast infection that causes white patches in your mouth
- Esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, the tube that takes food from your mouth to your stomach. Esophagitis can make it hard or painful to swallow
- Women can get vaginal yeast infections, causing itchiness, pain and discharge
- Yeast infections of the skin cause itching and rashes
- Yeast infections in your bloodstream can be life-threatening
Antifungal medicines eliminate yeast infections in most people. If you have a weak immune system, treatment might be more difficult.
Parasites are living things that use other living things—like your body—for food and a place to live. You can get them from contaminated food or water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Parasitic diseases can cause mild discomfort or be deadly.
Parasites range in size from tiny, one-celled organisms called protozoa to worms that can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases happen in the United States. Contaminated water supplies can lead to Giardia infections. Cats can transmit toxoplasmosis, which is dangerous for pregnant women. Others, like malaria, are common in other parts of the world.
If you are traveling, it’s important to drink only water you know is safe. Prevention is especially important. There are no vaccines for parasitic diseases. Some medicines are available to treat parasitic infections.
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung, usually caused by an infection. Three common causes are bacteria, viruses and fungi. You can also get pneumonia by accidentally inhaling a liquid or chemical. People most at risk are older than 65 or younger than 2 years of age, or already have health problems.
If you have pneumonia, you may have difficulty breathing and have a cough and a fever. A physical exam and history can help determine if you have pneumonia. Chest x-rays and blood tests can help determine what is wrong. Treatment depends on what made you sick. If bacteria are the cause, antibiotics should help. Viral pneumonia may get better with rest and drinking liquids.
Preventing pneumonia is always better than treating it. The best preventive measures include washing your hands frequently, not smoking, and wearing a mask when cleaning dusty or moldy areas. There is a vaccine for pneumococcal pneumonia, a bacterial infection which accounts for up to a quarter of all pneumonias.
Defining Health Disparities
Despite prevention efforts, some groups of people are affected by HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB more than other groups of people. The occurrence of these diseases at greater levels among certain population groups more than among others is often referred to as a health disparity. Differences may occur by gender, race or ethnicity, education, income, disability, geographic location and sexual orientation among others. Social determinants of health like poverty, unequal access to health care, lack of education, stigma, and racism are linked to health disparities.
Optional Learning Activity
For more information on this topic, see or listen to: What You Need to Know About Infectious Diseases.
Introduction: NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, MedlinePlus, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/infectiousdiseases.html
Strep Throat: NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases via MedlinePlus.gov
Viral Infections: NLM, NIH via MedlinePlus.gov
Influenza: NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases via MedlinePlus.gov
Hepatitis B: NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases via MedlinePlus.gov
Infectious mononucleosis: MedlinePlus.gov
Yeast Infections (or Candida): MedlinePlus.gov
Parasitic Diseases: National Library of Medicine, National Institutes for Health via MedlinePlus.gov
Defining Health Disparities: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/healthdisparities/