79 Summaries and Responses Overview

Note: The Summaries/Responses are on the same problems as the Problem Analysis.

Guidelines for Writing Summaries/Responses

Use bibliography title for the title of a summary/response that reports research form a single source. A bibliography title is the exact same reference to the source you would cite on a reference page. By using a bibliography title you let your reader know immediately where they can find the source.  

Use the 6th edition of the APA style of referencing.

Avoid the use of pronouns. This may not be practical at times; however, choose those times wisely. Before you decide to use a pronoun, exhaust all possible ways to avoid the use of a pronoun. At times, readers get lost in pronouns. Also, pronouns do not always refer to their intended noun. Unintended pronoun references send confusing messages or incorrect information.

Use correct grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and paragraph structure.

A response/evaluation follows the summary.

Usually, a summary is one, single-spaced paragraph and the evaluation/response is one, single-spaced paragraph. The paragraphs are separated by a double space.

Three figures posing to embody the communication process

The following details the content of a Summary-Response/Evaluation.


The Bibliography Title


The introduction references the author of the article, where he went to school, where he works, his affiliations, etc. If the article does not have an author, reference the company, presenting the company’s background, how long has the company been in business, what service the company sells or offers, how many employees the company employs, etc. You may not be able to address all of these areas. However, address as many as possible to add credibility to your research.


Do not put your opinion in any part of the summary. The information in the summary is only what the author states. The evaluation/response is for your opinion. Be sure to evidence your opinion from the information in the summary.

In the first statement of the summary, you must reference the author, using the author’s full name and the title of the work being summarized and evaluated. Use the last name of the author for all other references.

Reference every statement in the summary, followed by the article’s year of publication.  You can use a lead in reference, put the reference after an introductory phrase, or put the reference at the end of the statement. If a direct quote is cited, identify the paragraph number of the quote, immediately after the year of publication. Use the paragraph symbol (¶ ) or the abbreviation for paragraph to identity the number as a paragraph number. If the source is a pdf file use the page number to identify the page; cite p. for one page or pp. for multiple pages.

Reference every statement in the summary and every statement that supports your opinion in the evaluation/response.

When summarizing a report, do not use reference phrases such as Milgram feels or Baumrind enjoys. Use Milgram reports that he feels or Baumrind states that she enjoys.


The evaluation must address the work it evaluates. The evaluation is your opinion as it relates to the essay, report, article, etc.

In the evaluation/response, clearly state the following in a paragraph format.

  • the author’s purpose for writing,
  • if the author accomplished the purpose,
  • if you agree or disagree,
  • the reason you agree or disagree, and Why. 
  • How the article relates to your problem. 

See Example Summary-Response Teldon for a model.


Note: The Summaries/Responses are on the same problem as the Problem Analysis report. 


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