# 111 Water Properties

Table 1. Water Density (kg/m3) at Different Temperatures (°C)
Temperature[1] Density
0 999.8395
4 999.9720 (density maximum)
10 999.7026
15 999.1026
20 998.2071
22 997.7735
25 997.0479
30 995.6502
40 992.2
60 983.2
80 971.8
100 958.4

Table 2. Water Vapor Pressure at Different Temperatures (°C)
Temperature Vapor Pressure (torr) Vapor Pressure (Pa)
0 4.6 613.2812
4 6.1 813.2642
10 9.2 1226.562
15 12.8 1706.522
20 17.5 2333.135
22 19.8 2639.776
25 23.8 3173.064
30 31.8 4239.64
35 42.2 5626.188
40 55.3 7372.707
45 71.9 9585.852
50 92.5 12332.29
55 118.0 15732
60 149.4 19918.31
65 187.5 24997.88
70 233.7 31157.35
75 289.1 38543.39
80 355.1 47342.64
85 433.6 57808.42
90 525.8 70100.71
95 633.9 84512.82
100 760.0 101324.7

Table 3. Water Kw and pKw at Different Temperatures (°C)
Temperature Kw 10–14 pKw[2]
0 0.112 14.95
5 0.182 14.74
10 0.288 14.54
15 0.465 14.33
20 0.671 14.17
25 0.991 14.00
30 1.432 13.84
35 2.042 13.69
40 2.851 13.55
45 3.917 13.41
50 5.297 13.28
55 7.080 13.15
60 9.311 13.03
75 19.95 12.70
100 56.23 12.25

Table 4. Specific Heat Capacity for Water
C°(H2O(l)) = 4179 J∙K-1∙kg-1
C°(H2O(s)) = 1864 J∙K-1∙kg-1
C°(H2O(g)) = 2093 J∙K-1∙kg-1
Table 5. Standard Water Melting and Boiling Temperatures and Enthalpies of the Transitions
Temperature (K) $\Delta H\text{(kJ/mol)}$
melting 273.15 6.088
boiling 373.15 40.656 (44.016 at 298 K)
Table 6. Water Cryoscopic (Freezing Point Depression) and Ebullioscopic (Boiling Point Elevation) Constants
Kf = 1.86 K∙mol-1∙kg-1 (cryoscopic constant)
Kb = 0.51 K∙mol-1∙kg-1 (cryoscopic constant)

Water full-range spectral absorption curve. This curve shows the full-range spectral absorption for water. The y-axis signifies the absorption in 1/cm. If we divide 1 by this value, we will obtain the length of the path (in cm) after which the intensity of a light beam passing through water decays by a factor of the base of the natural logarithm e (e = 2.718281828).

1. Data for t < 0 °C are for supercooled water
2. pKw = –log10(Kw)

## License

General Chemistry - Lecture & Lab Copyright © by Lumen Learning is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.