Study the two example that follow before deciding whether you want to do the process description or the set of instructions for assignment #6.
Note: The drawings for the Process Description would fit in the blank spaces.
Instructions for opening your pool
The way you open your pool will determine what kinds of problems you will have keeping it clean throughout the summer. Better maintenance early will save lots of money in the long run, as well.
Adhering to the following steps will ensure that your pool will not be costly in time or in chemicals:
A. Back flush the filter.
1. Open the pump valve to “Back Flush.”
2. Turn the pump on and let it run until the water coming out of the valve is clear.
3. When clear, close the valve and refill the filter with DE (demologized enzymes) or with sand.
B. Remove any foreign matter in the pool.
1. Using a skimmer, remove all leaves, toys, twigs or an other matter that may have gotten into the pool during the winter.
Note: The courser the debris left in the pool will determine how well your pool will clean up and how much chemical you will need to use to achieve clarity.
C. Fill the pool to its normal capacity.
1. Use water that does not have a high concentration of dissolved particles.
Note: If you fill your pool with water from a well or public source, have the water checked for total dissolved particles. If the count is too high, the expense to you in chemicals and time could be great. There are people who sell spring water for this purpose. The cost of the water versus the chemical cost may make buying water worth your while.
D. Add the CORRECT amount of chemicals for the size of your pool.
1. After you have added the correct amount of chemicals, turn the pump on and leave it on until the pool is clear.
Note: If you don’t know how many gallons of water your pool holds, check with the installer. If the pool does not clear up in a couple of days, do not add more chemical. Check with the people that furnish your chemicals for advice.
WARNING: CHLORINE AND BIGUINIDE ARE STRONG OXIDIZERS. AVOID CONTACT WITH SKIN OR CLOTHING, AND AS WITH ALL CHEMICALS, KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
If you follow these initial steps, your pool will open quickly and be more pleasurable to you and your friends and family. Remember to have your pool water tested regularly. The dealer who provides you with chemicals can do this professionally.
Making Maple Syrup
Maple syrup is a thick, sweet, golden colored liquid made from the sap of sugar maple trees. Making it is a skill which has been passed down from generation to generation. Many people, however, do not understand how a clear, sweet liquid from inside a tree can become an even sweeter topping for pancakes.
The major steps for making maple syrup are (1) taping the trees, (2) gathering the sap, and (3) boiling the sap into syrup.
TAPPING THE TREES
Each year, the maple producer carefully chooses which trees he will tap. A maple tree is usually 30 years old and at least 10 inches in diameter before it is used. Only one tap for every 10 inches of diameter is placed on the tree. Overtapping removes too much sap, the tree’s nourishment, and can stunt its growth or even kill it.
As spring temperatures reach 33 degrees Fahrenheit, tapping starts. Tapping is simply drilling a 5/8 inch-wide hole 1½ inches into the side of the tree. A metal spout is snugly inserted into the hole, and a covered tin bucket is hung on a hook on the underside of the spout (See Figure 1).
Many producers today use plastic spouts attached to 3/8 inch plastic tubing (See Figure 2). The tubing, which weaves from tree to tree, is strung on a downhill pitch to a large gathering vat. During the “sugaring” session, an average maple tree runs 10 to 12 gallons of sap for every tap hole.
GATHERING THE SAP
Once the sap starts “running,” the producer collects it at least once a day. The longer it stands before it is boiled, the darker the syrup will be. The best syrup (Grade A) is light golden in color and is usually made early in the season.
The gatherer carries two five-gallon pails from tree to tree, emptying buckets as he goes. The pails are then emptied into a large gathering tank mounted on a wagon or truck. Working with plastic tubing is easier than the more traditional copper tubing. The gatherer pumps the sap from the collecting vat to the gathering tank. Once collected, the sap is transported manually to the sugar house.
As the sap is unloaded into storage tanks inside the sugar house, it is strained through a cloth to remove pieces of bark and leaves. From the storage tank, it is piped directly into the evaporator.
The evaporator is the sugar maker’s stove. It is a large oil or wood fired oven with a shallow, rectangular stainless steel pan on top. The pan has dividers connected to its outer walls that open at alternating ends (See Figure 3).
The sap flows in at the back of the evaporator, and as it cooks, the sap zig-zags its way through the dividers. Sap is mostly water and thickens as it boils and the water evaporates. On the average, it takes 40 gallons of sap to produce one gallon of syrup.
Regulating the heat in the evaporator is very important. If the sap cooks too slowly, it will darken, and if it cooks too quickly, it can scorch. An experienced boiler watches the syrup drain off his dipper, and when it runs together (sheets), it is ready to be drawn off. Many producers use a thermometer to make sure the correct temperature of 219 degrees Fahrenheit has been reached.
Drawing off means to open a valve at the front of the evaporator to remove, by pail, the finished syrup.
It is important that syrup be drawn off at just the right time. Undercooked syrup is thin and spoils easily, and overcooked syrup forms crystals as it cools.
Once the syrup is drawn off, it is strained again through a paper or felt filter. This removes the sugar sand, a mineral sediment that forms during boiling. The hot syrup is stored in a 20-gallon tank from which it can be graded by color.
Lastly, when it cools to 180 degrees Fahrenheit, it is sealed in various-sized containers. Now it is ready for that big stack of pancakes or chilly bowl of vanilla ice-cream.
When daytime temperatures reach into the high 40s and do not drop below freezing at night, sugaring is over for another year. Taps are removed from the trees, buckets or pipelines are washed and the sugar house equipment is thoroughly cleaned. Finally, it is time for the workers to rest.
Tapping, gathering and boiling are the basic steps to follow when making maple syrup. Through the years, these activities have produced pure, natural and delicious maple syrup.